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Qualifications

Ph.D. “Applications of Digital Image Processing for Automation in Palynology”,
Department of Electronic Engineering, The University of Hull. UK.
B.Sc. Joint Hons. Physical Geography and Geology, The University of Hull. UK.

About

Career Summary:

  • Reader, Faculty of Computing, Engineering & Science, University of South Wales
  • 2003-2013 Principal Lecturer, Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan.
  • 1994, 1995, and 1997. Visiting International Scientist. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CGIAR – C.I.A.T.), Cali, Colombia, South America.
  • 1991-2003 Lecturer, Department of Geography, The University of Leicester.
  • 1989-1991 Research Associate, Midlands Regional Research Laboratory, The University of Leicester
  • 1987-1989 Research Associate, Computers in Teaching Initiative, The University of Leicester

Experience

Technical skills: ArcGIS Desktop GIS; QGIS Desktop GIS; ArcGIS Add-in development using ArcObjects & C#.NET; QGIS plug-in development using PyQt & Python; PyQt GUI programming; PostgreSQL ORDBMS; SQLite RDBMS; Spatial Databases using PostGIS spatially-enabled ORDBMS (also SpatiaLite & SQLServer); ANSI SQL; SQL/MM; PostGIS pgRouting network applications development; Software engineering, particularly in C#.NET & Visual Studio; Web Mapping applications development (e.g. client-side APIs: Google Maps, Bing Map, OpenLayers, Leaflet; server-side: GeoServer). Web applications development (JavaScript / CSS / HTML5.0 / PHP); Information Systems development (ADO.NET / ASP.NET, Windows Forms, Web Forms, MVC); Python coding and scripting in ArcGIS & QGIS; ERDAS Imagine.

Areas of Expertise: Quantitative and Computational Geography; Spatial Analysis and Spatial Analytical Modelling; Spatial Accessibility Modelling and the computation and application of geographical accessibility metrics, particularly those using Enhanced Two-step Floating Catchment Area (E2SFCA) methodologies and derivatives; Dasymetric Mapping: principles, methods, and applications; Areal interpolation: methodologies and small-area population estimation techniques; Population distribution modelling and the construction of population density surfaces; Spatial databases: design and implementation; Spatial information systems: design and implementation. Software engineering, particularly in the development of geospatial add-in tools; Geographical Information Systems: ArcGIS, QGIS, PostGIS, JumpGIS, and others. Environmental (in)equality and (in)justice; Environmental and social applications for satellite remotely sensed imagery.

Responsibilities

Ph.D. – External Examiner
Ph.D. – Internal Examiner
Ph.D. – Research Supervision
M.Sc. – Masters Projects Supervision
B.Sc. – Undergraduate Projects Supervision

Teaching: MSc Computing Scheme:
ICT Systems Development (spatial databases);
Teaching: B.Sc./MComp Computing Scheme:
– Yr1: C# Computer Programming;
– Yr2: Database Development (spatial databases);
– Yr2: Team Application Project with Professional Practice and Employability;
– Yr3: GIS and the Spatial Web (Mapping APIs, OpenLayers & GeoServer);

Invited Peer Reviewer for a wide range of International Scientific Journals – these have included:
Applied Geography, International Journal of Geographical Information Science; Transactions in Geography; Geographical Analysis; The Professional Geographer; Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems; Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy; The International Journal of Science and Technology; British Medical Council Health Services Research; International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; International Regional Science Review; Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing; Habitat International; The Journal of Maps; International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Publications

Langford, M., Higgs, G., & Taylor, C. (2019) “Accessibility to secondary schools in the UK: an enhanced two-step floating catchment areas (E2SFCA) analysis, using well-informed variable-sized catchments”. Rights and Accessibility of Young People, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 3rd-5th April.

Price, A., Langford, M., Higgs, G. and Radcliffe, J. (2019) “Enhancing our understanding of access to sporting facilities in Wales through geospatial analysis”. Poster presented at GIS Research UK Conference, University of Newcastle, April 24th – 26th.

Williams, R., Higgs, G. and Langford, M. (2019) “The usability of open source tools to measure access to health services; analysing mobile cancer unit location”. Paper presented at GIS Research UK conference, University of Newcastle, April 24th – 26th.

Higgs, G, Langford, M., Jarvis, P., Page, N., Richards, J. and Fry, R. (2019) “Using GIS to investigate variations in accessibility to ‘extended hours’ primary health care provision”, Health and Social Care in the Community, forthcoming, DOI:10.1111/hsc.12724

Page, N., Higgs, G. and Langford, M. (2018) “Exploring local patterns of voluntarism in Wales”, Cynhadledd Flynyddol WISERD/WISERD Annual Conference University of South Wales, Pontypridd. 18th-19th July 2018.

Page, N., Higgs, G. and Langford, M. (2018) “Estimating levels of volunteering in small-areas of Wales. Session 145: Geographies and landscapes of civil society(1)”, RGS-IBG Annual International Conference University of Cardiff, Wales. 28th-31st August 2018.

Langford, M., Higgs, G., and Dallimore, D. (2018) “Investigating spatial variations in access to childcare provision using network-based GIS models” Social Policy & Administration https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12419

Page, N., Higgs, G. and Langford, M. (2018) “An exploratory analysis of spatial variations in organ donation registration rates in Wales prior to the implementation of the Human Transplantation (Wales) Act 2013” Health & Place. vol.52, p.18-24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.05.002

Page, N., Langford, M. and Higgs, G. (2018) “An evaluation of alternative measures of accessibility for investigating potential ‘deprivation amplification’ in service provision” Applied Geography, vol.95, p.19-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.04.003

Page, N., Langford, M. and Higgs, G. (2018) “Measuring spatial accessibility to services within Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Implications of applying an Enhanced two-step Floating Catchment Area (E2SFCA) approach” Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, Published Online 28 Dec 2017 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-017-9246-2

Langford, M., Higgs, G. and Radcliffe, J. (2018) “The application of network-based GIS tools to investigate spatial variations in the provision of sporting facilities” Annals of Leisure Research. 21:2, 178-198. Published Online 13 Jan 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11745398.2016.1272059

Page, N., Langford, M. and Higgs, G (2018) “Barriers to reproducible research in GIS; a practical example using a national index of multiple deprivation”, GISRUK 2018: 26th GIScience Research UK Conference, The University of Leicester, UK, 18th-20th April, 2018.

Higgs, G., Jones, S. Langford, M. and Heley, J. (2018) “Assessing the impacts of changing public service provision on geographical accessibility: an examination of public library provision in Pembrokeshire, South Wales” Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 36(3), 548-568.

Williams, R., Higgs, G. Langford, M., Banks T. and Edwards, R (2018) “Translating networked based accessibility measures into an open source environment; challenges and opportunities”, GISRUK 2018: 26th GIScience Research UK Conference, The University of Leicester, UK, 18th-20th April, 2018.

Williams, R., Langford, M., Higgs, G., Banks T. and Edwards, R (2018) “Migrating Accessibility Measures to Open Source”, FOSS4G UK 2018, Urban Innovation Centre, London, UK, 8th-9th March, 2018.

Thomas, H., Crocker, S., Wilton, J.,Davies, C., Langford, M.,and Higgs, G. (2017) “Childcare Capacity in Wales: Mapping childcare supply against potential demand” Government Social Research 65/2017. Welsh Government. http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/childcare-capacity-wales ISBN 978-1-78859-804-0

Higgs, G., Zahnow, R, Corcoran, J. Langford, M. and Fry, R. (2017) “Modelling spatial access to General Practitioner surgeries: Does public transport availability matter?” Journal of Transport & Health. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2017.05.361 http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S2214140516303243

Frew, R., Higgs, G. Harding, J. and Langford, M. (2017) “Investigating geospatial data usability from a health geography perspective using sensitivity analysis: the example of potential accessibility to primary healthcare” Journal of Transport & Health. 6. 128-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.03.013

Page, N., Langford, M. and Higgs, G (2017) “Community-level Social Capital and Public Service Provision: A Position Paper and Research Agenda” 1639 Urban Services: Interactions, Mobilities, Engagements, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, The Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, 5th-9th April, 2017.

Langford, M., Higgs, G. and Fry, R. (2016) “Multi-modal Two-step Floating Catchment Area Analysis of Primary Health Care Accessibility” Health & Place. 38, 70-81. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.11.007

Langford, M., Higgs G. and Fry, R. 2015 USW-FCA2: An ArcGIS add-In tool to compute Enhanced Two-Step Floating Catchment Area accessibility scores” Software Package – ArcMap add-in Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287198887_USW-FCA2_An_ArcGIS_add-In_tool_to_compute_Enhanced_Two-Step_Floating_Catchment_Area_accessibility_scores. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.3178.8884

Langford, M. Higgs, G and Fry R. 2015 “Measuring Assess to Primary Health Care using Two-Step Floating Catchment Areas and a Public/Private Multi-modal Transport Network” Plurimondi, [S.I.], Vol.8, No.16, 39-52. ISSN 2420-921X. available at <http://plurimondi.poliba.it/index.php/Plurimondi/article/view/53>

Langford, M. Higgs, G and Fry R. 2015 “Measuring Assess to Primary Health Care using Two-Step Floating Catchment Areas and a Public/Private Multi-modal Transport Network” ECTQ2015: The XIX European Colloquium in Theoretical and Quantitative Geography Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Bari (MAIB), Bari, Italy. 3rd-7th September 2015.

Higgs, G. Langford, M. and Norman P. 2015 “Accessibility to sport facilities in Wales: A GIS-based analysis of socio-economic variations in provision.” Geoforum. 62, 105-120.

Frew, R. Higgs, G. Langford, M. and Harding J. 2015 “Assessing geographic data usability in analytical contexts: Undertaking sensitivity analysis of geospatial processes” Proceedings of the 23rd Annual GIS Research UK Conference, Leeds University 15th-17th April 2015, p38.

Langford, M., Higgs G. and Fry, R. 2014 USWFCA : An ArcGIS (10.1/10.2) Add-In tool to compute Enhanced Two-Step Floating Catchment Area accessibility scores” Software Package (ArcGIS AddIn) Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261398233_USWFCA__An_ArcGIS_(10.110.2)Add-In_tool_to_compute_Enhanced_Two-Step_Floating_Catchment_Area_accessibilityscores

Langford, M., Higgs G. and Fry, R. 2014 USWFCA Installation and Usage Instructions” Installation Instructions available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261437885_USWFCA_Installation_and_Usage_Instructions

Langford, M. (2013) “An evaluation of small area population estimation techniques using open access ancillary data.” Geographical Analysis. 45, 324-344.

Higgs, G., Langford, M. (2013) “Investigating the validity of rural-urban distinctions in the impacts of changing service provision: the example of postal service reconfiguration in Wales.” Geoforum. 47, 53-64.

Higgs, G., Langford, M. and Fry, R. (2013) “Investigating variations in the provision of digital services in public libraries using network-based GIS models.” Library & Information Science Research. 35, 24-32.

Langford, M., Higgs, G., and Fry, R. (2012) “Using floating catchment analysis (FCA) techniques to examine intra-urban variations in accessibility to public transport opportunities: the example of Cardiff, Wales.” Journal of Transport Geography. 25, 1-14.

Higgs, G., Fry, R. and Langford, M. (2012) “Investigating the implications of using alternative GIS-based techniques to measure accessibility to green space.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 39(2) 326 – 343.

Langford, M., Fry, R. and Higgs, G. (2012) “Measuring transit system accessibility using a modified two-step floating catchment technique.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 26(2) 193 – 214.

Berry, R., Higgs, G., Fry, R. and Langford M. (2011) “Web-based GIS approaches to enhance public participation in wind farm planning.” Transactions in Geographical Information Systems. 15(2): 147–172.

Langford, M. and Higgs, G (2011) “Evaluating the performance of the binary dasymetric interpolation model at the lowest census dissemination level” 1416 Interpolation and Uncertainty in Small-Area Estimates 1, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, Washington, 12th-16th April, 2011.

Langford, M., Fry, R., Higgs, G. (2011). “A modified two-step floating catchment area technique for measuring transit system accessibility”. Proceedings of the 19th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, Portsmouth University 27th-29th April 2011, 220-229.

Berry, R., Higgs, G., Fry, R., Langford, M. (2011). “Web GIS for enhancing public participation in wind farm planning”. Proceedings of the 19th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, Portsmouth University 27th-29th April 2011, 220-229.

Langford, M. and Higgs, G. (2010) “Accessibility and public service provision: evaluating the impacts of the Post Office Network Change Programme in the UK”." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 35(4), 585-601.

Higgs, G. and Langford, M. (2009) “GIScience, environmental justice, and estimating populations at risk: The case of landfills in Wales”." Applied Geography. 29, 63-76.

Langford, M. (2009) GIS for environmental decision making”." Environment and Planning B – Planning & Degisn. 36, 2, 377-378.

Langford, M., Higgs, G., Radcliffe, J., and White, S. (2008) “Urban population distribution models and service accessibility estimation”." Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 32(1), 66-80.

Higgs, G., Berry, R., Kidner, D. and Langford, M. (2008) ) “Using IT approaches to promote public participation in renewable energy planning: Prospects and Challenges”." Land Use Policy. 25(4), 596-607.

Langford M. (2007) ) “Rapid facilitation of dasymetric-based population interpolation by means of raster pixel maps”." Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 31(1), 19-32.

Berry, R., Higgs, G., Kidner, D., Langford, M. (2007). “Examining the potential of Internet-based Landscape and Visual Impact tools to promote public participation in wind farm planning. Proceedings of the 15th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, Maynooth, Ireland, 10th-13th April.

Berry, R., Higgs, G., Kidner, D., Langford, M. (2007). “Examining the potential of Internet-based geographical information systems to promote public participation in wind farm planning”. Royal Geographical Society – Institute of British Geographers (RGS-IBG) Annual Conference, London, 29th-31st August 2007.

Langford M. and Higgs G. (2006) ) “Measuring Potential Access to Primary Healthcare Services: The Influence of Alternative Spatial Representations of Population.” The Professional Geographer. 58(3), 294-306.

Langford M. (2006) ) “Obtaining population estimates in non-census reporting zones: An evaluation of the 3-class dasymetric method”." Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 30(2), 161-180.

Berry, R., Higgs, G., Langford, M., and Fry,R. (2006). “An evaluation of online GIS-based landscape and visual impact assessment tools and their potential for enhancing public participation in the UK. 7th International Conference on Information Technologies in Landscape Architecture., Anhalt University, Dessau, Germany. 17th-20th May. <http://www.isprs.org/proceedings/xxxviii/4-w13/id_46.pdf>

Langford M., and Higgs, G. (2005) “Measuring potential access to primary healthcare services in Wales: The influence of alternative spatial representations of population”, In BILLEN, R. et al (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, University of Glasgow, UK. pp1-15.

Langford M. (2005) “Dasymetric mapping of industry and commerce across Wales, UK, using geospatial integration of national mapping agency products”. ACSM-CLSA-NALS-WFPS Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Las Vegas. USA.

Langford M. (2004) “Populated pixel maps: a simple method to facilitate dasymetric areal interpolation”. Proceedings of the 12th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, University of East Anglia, UK. pp370-372.

Langford M. (2003) “Refining methods for dasymetric mapping using satellite remote sensing”. In: Mesev, V. (Ed) Remotely Sensed Cities, Taylor & Francis: London. pp137-156.

Robinson S, Langford M. and Tate N. (2002) “Modelling Population Distribution with OS LandLine.Plus data and Landsat Imagery”. Proceedings of the 11th Annual GIS Research UK Conference, University of Sheffield, UK. pp320-325.

Langford M. and Harvey J. (2001) “The Use of Remotely Sensed Data for Spatial Disaggregation of Published Census Population Counts”. Proceedings IEEE/ISPRS Joint Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas, Spazio Congressi, Rome. pp260-264.

Martin D, Tate N, and Langford M. (2000) “Refining population surface models; experiments with Northern Ireland census data”. Transactions in Geographical Information Systems. 4(4), 342-360.

Langford, M. and Tate N. (2000) “Enhancing models of dasymetric population mapping”, RSS2000, Leicester University, UK.

Cockings, S., Fisher, P. and Langford, M. (1997) “Parameterisation and visualisation of the errors in areal interpolation”. Geographical Analysis. 29(4), 314-328.

Langford, M. and Bell, W. (1997). “Land cover mapping in a tropical hillsides environment: A case study in the Cauca region of Colombia”. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 18(6), 1289-1306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014311697218421

Langford, M., Bell, W. (1997) “A comparison between an image processing approach and a GIS approach to improving land cover mapping using multi-source satellite imagery”. Proceedings of the 5th Annual GIS Research UK Conference,, University of Leeds, UK. pp56-64.

Baldwin J., Fisher P,, Wood J, Langford, M. (1996) “Modelling environmental cognition of the view with GIS”. Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.

Fisher, P. and Langford, M. (1996) “Modelling sensitivity to accuracy in classified imagery: A study of areal interpolation”. The Professional Geographer. 48(3), 299-309.

Fisher, P and Langford, M. (1995) “Modeling the errors in areal interpolation between zonal systems by Monte Carlo simulation”. Environment and Planning A. 27, 211–224. https://doi.org/10.1068/a270211

Bell, W, Langford, M., Rubiano, J, Urbano, P, Byne, S, Rincón, M. (1995) “Dificultades en la creación de un SIG en las laderas de los Andes colombianos”. cgspace.cgiar.org<http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/ciat_digital/CIAT/books/historical/111.pdf>

Langford, M. and Unwin, D. (1994) “Generating and mapping population density surfaces within a geographical information system”. The Cartographic Journal. 31, 21-26. https://doi.org/10.1179/000870494787073718

Strachan A. and Langford, M. (1994) “Diploma/M.Sc. in GIS – The Leicester Experience”. Proceedings EGIS’94, Paris, France. pp812-821.

Langford, M., Dykes, J., Wood, J (1994) “The design and implementation of a flexible GIS teaching resource”. Proceedings EGIS’94, Paris, France. pp243-251.

Langford, M., and Fisher P. (1994) “Measuring the Accuracy of Cross Areal Population Estimates”. AGI’94 Conference Proceedings, Birmingham, UK. Paper 3.22. pp1-8

Unwin D, Langford, M. (1993) “The life and death of LIPS: Some lessons from the design and use of courseware for teaching digital image processing”. IEE Colloquium on Teaching of Digital Image Processing in Universities, London UK. 21-21 Oct. 1993

Fisher P, Langford, M. (1993) “Dasymetric Mapping from Classified Landsat Imagery and Cross Area Estimation”. GIS/LIS Proceedings:1993, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2-4 November, Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Vol.1 p.219-219.

Langford, M., Fisher, P. and Troughear, D. (1993) “Comparative Accuracy Measurements of the Cross Areal Interpolation of Population”. Proceedings EGIS’93, Genoa, Italy. pp663-674.

Derbyshire, E., Unwin, D, Fang, X and Langford, M. (1992). “The Fourier frequency-domain representation of sediment fabric anisotrophy”. Computers and Geosciences. 18, 63-73.

Langford, M., Maguire, D. and Unwin, D. (1991) “The areal interpolation problem: Estimating population using remote sensing in a GIS framework” In Handling geographic information: Methodology and potential applications. I. Masser and M. Blakemore. London, Longman: pp55-77.

Langford, M. and Strachan, A. (1991) “Getting Started in GIS: cost effective solutions and academic support”. AGI’91 Conference Proceedings, Paper 3.7. Birmingham, UK.

Langford, M., Taylor, G. and Flenley, J. (1990). " Computerised identification of pollen grains by texture analysis." Review of PalaeoBotany and Palynology. 64, 97-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(90)90133-4

Langford, M., Maguire, D. and Unwin, D. (1990) “Cross area population estimation using remote sensing and GIS”. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Switzerland. Vol.1, 541-550.

Langford, M., Unwin, D. and Maguire, D. (1990) “Generating improved population density maps in an integrated GIS”. Proceedings EGIS’90, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp651-660.

Langford, M., Taylor, G. and Flenley, J. (1986) “The application of texture analysis for automated pollen identification”. Proceedings of the Conference on Identification and Pattern Recognition, Toulouse, France. Vol.2. 729-739. Universite Paul Sabatier.

Memberships

orcid.org/0000-0002-8641-5041

Consultancy

2017. “Analysing the Sporting Infrastructure of Wales”. Commissioned by the Sports Facilities Review Programme, Department for Economy, Skills and Natural Resources, Welsh Assembly Government.

2016. “Childcare Provision Gap Analysis” commissioned by the Social Research and Information Division of the Welsh Assembly Government. The primary purpose of this contract was to undertake analyses of the spatial distribution of childcare provision relative to potential demand across Wales. The programme consisted of a series of advanced spatial statistical models using Two-Step Floating Catchment Areas Analysis, to evaluate the total capacity of childcare providers against the likely demand arising within local geographical levels (specifically Output Area and Lower Super Output Area). The research has had impact in terms of its use by the Welsh Government to explore geographical gaps in current childcare provision and to inform future policy development in regard to a manifesto pledge for free childcare provision for all working parents.

2015. “A customised GIS system for investigating inequalities in access to sporting facilities
in Wales”. Commissioned by SportWales. This project consisted of the development of a customised tool for use in ArcMap to provided bespoke accessibility analyses. The tool was bundled with a geodatabase containing pertinent open access data and 2011 census statistics which allowed the client to analyse variations in the spatial availability of sporting facilities across Wales and to investigate potential associations in provision with socio-economic characteristics of the local population demographics.

Research

I describe myself as a quantitative geographer & computer scientist. My research interests fall into the fields of spatial data modelling and geostatistical analyses. Research activities, publications and other outputs have broadly focused upon spatial analyses, the advancement of geographical information science, and the application of computer programming/software engineering to spatial data and geographical problems.

Like most academics, my research career has seen a number of twists and turns. Initially working with Professor John Flenley, I have published pioneering work in the field of Palynology. This subject is mainly concerned with analysing fossil pollen found within mud cores, is an important scientific tool for studying paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. It is also used in oil and gas exploration, and occasionally for criminal forensic evidence. Traditionally, pollen identification is a highly-skilled, time-consuming, and costly task using optical microscopy. My Ph.D. (published 1988) explored the potential for machine vision, pattern recognition, and digital image processing to automate this task <see: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:3098>. It established that, in principle, texture descriptors computed from digital scanning electron microscope images could feed into pattern recognition and statistical classification algorithms (i.e. artificial Intelligence techniques) to automatically identify pollen grains. The publication “Computerized identification of pollen grains by texture analysis” (Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 1990) acted as a catalyst for others interested in pursuing this goal, and after numerous developments such as those listed below, it has now become a reality:

Gonçalves at. al. (2016) Feature Extraction and Machine Learning for the Classification of Brazilian Savannah Pollen Grains. PLoS ONE, Maros J.R. et. al. (2015) Automated pollen identification using microscopic imaging and texture analysis. Micron, DellAnna R. et. al. (2009) Pollen discrimination and classification by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and machine learning. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., Ivleva N. et. al. (2005) Characterization and discrimination of pollen by Raman microscopy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., Zhang Y. et.al. (2004) Towards automation of palynology 3: pollen pattern recognition using Gabor transforms and digital moments. J. Quat. Sci., Pappas C. et. al. (2003) New method for pollen identification by FT-IR spectroscopy. Appl. Spectroscopy; Li P. and Flenley J.R. (1999) Pollen texture identification using neural networks. Grana.

My personal research interests shfted after my Ph.D. towards the development, evaluation and application of spatial interpolation techniques for small-area population estimation. This led to significant methodological developments, particularly in the adoption of dasymetric mapping techniques for spatial interpolation. The paper “Generating and mapping population density surfaces within a geographical information system" published in 1994 by myself and Professor David Unwin, has become a highly influential and widely cited article, The ideas and techniques expressed in this paper have inspired many subsequent research arcticles that explore the use of satellite imagery and other ancillary geospatial information, for intelligent dasymetric spatial interpolation, population density surface modelling, and small-area population estimates.

Our work primarily illustrated how dasymetric techniques can improve the cartographic presentation of population distribution, compared to a ‘traditional’ choropleth map. Further work conducted with Professor Pete Fisher, focused on proving the effectiveness of dasymetric methods for driving intelligent areal interpolation techniques. “Modeling the errors in areal interpolation between zonal systems by Monte Carlo simulation” in Environment and Planning A (1995) and “Parameterisation and visualisation of the errors in areal interpolation” in Geographical Analysis (1997) are widely cited, and the methodologies and concepts they propose have been adopted and adapted in many subsequent publications exploring in this field.

Most recently, my work with Professor Gary Higgs, has focused on the study of geographical accessibility. Our efforts have included the development of bespoke software to facilitate easy computation of sophisticated accessibility metrics, and studies that explore the application of these tools to many thematic problem areas. I have developed and published a ArcGIS AddIn tool to compute Enhanced Two-Step Floating Catchment Areas accessibility metrics (available via ResearchGate) which continues to generate widespread interest amongst fellow academics. We are since engaged in developing free and open source (FOSS) alternatives to replicate this functionality and deliver through a browser-based interface. We have published a body of studies that apply E2SFCA scores, as well as other accessibility measures, to themes as diverse as Primary Health Care provision, access to Public transport facilities, the reconfiguration of Post Office service, access to Public libraries and Sports facilities, and the capacity and spatial supply of Childcare services. For example:

“Measuring potential access to primary healthcare services: the influence of alternative spatial representations of population”, The Professional Geographer, 2006; “Multi-modal Two-step Floating Catchment Area Analysis of Primary Health Care Accessibility”, Health & Place, 2016; “Using floating catchment analysis (FCA) techniques to examine intra-urban variations in accessibility to public transport opportunities: the example of Cardiff, Wales”, Journal of Transport Geography, 2012; “Investigating the validity of rural-urban distinctions in the impacts of changing service provision: the example of postal service reconfiguration in Wales”, Geoforum, 2013; “Accessibility and public service provision: evaluating the impacts of the Post Office Network Change Programme in the UK”, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2010; “Assessing the impacts of changing public service provision on geographical accessibility: an examination of public library provision in Pembrokeshire, South Wales”, Environment and Planning C, 2017: “The application of network-based GIS tools to investigate spatial variations in the provision of sporting facilities”, Annals of Leisure Research, 2018; “Accessibility to sport facilities in Wales: A GIS-based analysis of socio-economic variations in provision”, Geoforum, 2015; “Investigating spatial variations in access to childcare provision using network-based GIS models”, Social Policy & Administration, 2018.

Overall, my research has impacted on a broad and eclectic mix of fields including environmental analysis, medical geography, urban geography, social science, and geographical information science. This is evidenced by over 1,500 citations to date in international peer-review articles published across a broad spectrum of academic journals (including: Applied Geography; Applied GIS; Annals of the Association of American Geographers; Australian Journal of Primary Health; Automation in Construction; BMC Health Services Research; The Canadian Geographer; Cartographica; Cartography and Geographic Information Science; Chinese Science Bulletin; Computers Ecological Modelling; Computer Vision and Image Understanding; Energy Policy; Environment and Urban systems; Environment and Planning A; Epidemiology; Geography Compass; Geographical Analysis; GeoJournal; GeoCarto International; GIScience and Remote Sensing; Health and Place; International Journal of Geographical Information Science; Journal of Quantitative Criminology; International Journal of Health Geographics; International Journal of Population Geography; Journal of Geographical Systems; Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved; Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Planning; Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology; Land Use Policy; Journal of Maps; Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences; New Zealand Geographer; Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing; Population and Environment; Population Research and Policy Review; Population, Space and Place; The Professional Geographer; Quaternary Science Reviews; International Journal of Remote Sensing; Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A; Renewable Energy; Social Science Research; Social Science and Medicine; Spatial Science; Science in China – Series E: Technological Sciences; Science of the Total Environment; Urban Geography; Vetinary Research; The International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation; International Journal of Geographical Information Science, and Transactions in GIS).

Areas of Expertise

Quantitative Geography and Spatial Analysis. Particularly applied to the use of spatial accessibility metrics – in health and social services, environmental justice and spatial analysis. GIS Applications, Geo-computation, and Geo-spatial modelling; Software engineering (in C#, Python, and SQL/MM) particularly for the development of geo-spatial analytical tools; Spatially-enabled databases, including design, implementation, and the deployment of spatial querying operations; Dasymetric mapping principles, particularly those applied to areal interpolation tasks.

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